eload™ Hydration Formula Sports Drink | Eload

eload™ Hydration Formula Sports Drink

A great sport drink helps in the prevention and control of heat stress, primarily by replacing sweat electrolytes and fluid as they are lost. If electrolyte balance is maintained within, and you supply enough fluid to replace losses (see our Race / Nutrition Calculators) you are well on your way to success in the heat!

The most important physiological job of your sport drink is to maintain your fluid and electrolyte balance.

In hot conditions this can be especially challenging. A great sport drink helps in the prevention and control of heat stress, primarily by replacing sweat electrolytes and fluid as they are lost. If electrolyte balance is maintained within, and you supply enough fluid to replace losses (see our Nutrition Calculators) you are well on your way to success in the heat!

You should know that symptoms of heat stress include muscle cramps, stomach upset, stomach cramps, nausea, flatulence, diarrhea, headaches, dizzyness, unusual fatigue and delirium. Sometimes, a coma, and even death, can be blamed on extreme heat stress, as can a very important condition known as hyponatremia.

The most important ingredients in a sports drink responsible for the prevention of heat illness are adequate amounts of electrolytes. Virtually all sports drinks have a maximum of 1/6 – 1/2 of the concentration of electrolytes that you lose in your sweat. (8) Depletion of these valuable electrolytes are a big reason why heat stress leads to heat illness, including the ever common muscle cramps. The Anti-Cramp formula in e load™ has been helping cramping athletes everywhere.

Dextrose, the principal carbohydrate in e load™, is a high glycemic carbohydrate that is rapidly absorbed and yields instant energy. Additionally, dextrose is the carbohydrate of choice for a sports drink made to combat heat stress. The biggest reason for this is that dextrose actually facilitates sodium absorption from the small intestine, unlike other carbohydrates

For optimal performance in the heat, replacing sodium and potassium (the two most abundant electrolytes in sweat) in the ratio in which they are lost from sweat means less chance of succumbing to heat stress. This ratio averages between 3:1 and 5:1 i.e. your drink should contain 3-5 times more sodium than potassium. Most sports drinks completely ignore this important physiological truth.

Acid buildup from prolonged high level physical exertion acts like “muscle glue”, and its’ accumulation may be more pronounced in the heat. Acid causes muscle burning and heaviness, inhibiting normal muscle contraction, resulting in reduced performance. It makes sense to have an ingredient in your sports drink to counter these problems.Check out our acid killing MultiCitrate™(9).

Everyone of you is different, with different sweat tendencies, and different levels of electrolyte in your sweat. In fact, there is a 50-100% variation in the levels of sweat electrolyte from person to person. We at Medion are well aware of the differences that exist in the physiology of individuals, and for those needing it, we enable you to ingest even more electrolyte with our innovative ZONE CAPS X 5 TM Buffered Electrolyte Capsules.

Excess stomach acid is a problem for many people in stressful situations, causing stomach pain, cramps, nausea and vomiting. Exercise can be stressful, especially high intensity exercise in the heat, and the extra stomach acid secreted in these situations can contribute to gastrointestinal distress. e load™ addresses this issue with its’ low acidity formula. In fact, compared to a drink like Gatorade, eload has 35 times LESS acidity.

Calcium loss through sweat may actually predispose athletes to bone loss and stress fractures when inadequately replaced. An average loss of calcium per liter of sweat is 50 milligrams (which happens to be the amount found in e load ™) (38).

In the heat, e load™ is like no other!

For a more detailed breakdown of e load™ and the science behind it, please see “The Science of e load™”.

  1. Gisolfi, CV et al: Human intestinal water absorption: direct vs indirect measurements. Am J Physiol, 258:G216, 1990.
  2. Gisolfi, CV et al: Intestinal water absorption from select carbohydrate solutions in humans. J Appl Physiol, 7:2142, 1992.
  3. Gisolfi, CV et al: Effect of sodium concentration in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on intestinal absorption. Med Sci Sprots Exerc, 27:1414, 1995.
  4. Review of Medical Physiology, 16th ed. Lange. 1993. Ed. William F Ganong. pp 430.
  5. Review of Medical Physiology, 16th ed. Lange. 1993. Ed. William F Ganong. pp 434.
  6. Walberg-Rankin, J. Glycemic index and exercise metabolism. SSE 64-volume 10 (1997), Number 1. pp 5.
  7. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 73.
  8. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. pp 656.
  9. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. pp 94.
  10. Clarkson, PM et al: Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? Am J Clin Nut, Vol 72, No 2, 637S-646S, August 2000.
  11. Engell D et al. Environmental and sensory modulation of fluid intake in humans. In: Thirst: Physiological and Psychological Aspects. DJ Ramsay and DA Booth (eds.). Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp382-402.
  12. Hubbard RW et al. Voluntary dehydration and alliesthesia for water. J Appl Physiol. 57:868-875. 1994.
  13. Bergeron, MF. Sodium: The forgotten nutrient. SSE 78-volume 13 (2000). Number 3.
  14. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 817.
  15. Kamel KS et al. Treatment of hyponatremia: A quantitative analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 21:439. 1993.
  16. Fichman MP et al. Diuretic induced hyponatremia. Ann Intern Med. 75:853. 1971.
  17. Wenger CB. Human heat acclimatization. In: Human performance physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Pandolf KB et al (eds.) Benchmark Press, 1988, pp 153-157.
  18. Felig P et al. Fuel homeostasis in exercise. N Eng J Med, 293:1078, 1975.
  19. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 72.
  20. Coyle EF et al. Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. J Appl Physiol, 55:230, 1983.
  21. Krzentowski B et al. Availability of glucose given orally during exercise. J Appl Physiol, 56:315, 1984.
  22. Yaspelkis BB et al. Carbohydrate supplementation spares muscle glycogen during variable intensity exercise. J Appl Physiol, 75:1477, 1993.
  23. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 75.
  24. Burstein R et al. Glucose polymer ingestion-effect on fluid balance and glycemic state during a 4 day march. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 26:360, 1994.
  25. Millard-Stafford ML et al. Carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement improves distance running performance in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 24:934, 1992.
  26. Rehrer NJ et al. Gastric emptying, absorption, and carbohydrate oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol, 72:468, 1992.
  27. Vist GE et al. Gastric emptying of dilute glucose solutions in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 22:S70, 1992.
  28. Tsintzas et al. Influence of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks on marathon running performance. Euro J Appl Physiol, 70:154-160, 1995.
  29. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 816.
  30. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 514.
  31. The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 29th ed. Lippincott-Raven. 1998. Eds. Carey CF et al. pp 497.
  32. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 516.
  33. Speedy DB et al. Hyponatremia in ultradistance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31:809-815.
  34. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. Chapters 8 & 14.
  35. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. Chapter 23.
  36. Leijssen DP et al. Oxidation of exogenous [13C]galactose and [13C]glucose during exercise. J Appl Physiology, Sep;79(3):720-5.
  37. Shi, X., et al.: Effects of carbohydrate type and concentration and solution osmolality on water absorption. Med.Sci. Sports Exerc., 27:1607.1995.
  38. Klesges RC, Ward KD, Shelton ML, Applegate WB, Cantler ED, Palmieri GM, Harmon K, Davis J. Changes in bone mineral content in male athletes. Mechanisms of action and intervention effects. JAMA. 1996 Jul 17;276(3):226-30.
  39. Michael N Sawka and Scott J Montain. Fluid and electrolyte supplementation for exercise heat stress. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2, 564S-572s, August 2000.
  40. S. M. Shirreffs and R. J. Maughan. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content. J Appl Physiol 82: 336-341. 1997.
  41. Clarkson PM. Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes. J Sports Sci. 1991 Summer;9 Spec No:91-116.
  42. Rehrer NJ, Wagenmakers AJ, Beckers EJ, Halliday D, Leiper JB, Brouns F, Maughan RJ, Westerterp K, Saris WH. Gastric emptying, absorption, and carbohydrate oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992 Feb;72(2):468-75.
  43. Coyle EF. Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004 Jan;22(1):39-55.
  44. R.J. Maughan and Susan M. Shirreffs. Fluid and electrolyte loss and replacement in exercise, in Oxford Textbook of Sports Medicine, ed Harries et al. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford. 1998.
  45. Stauber JL, Florence TM. Sci Total Environ. CSIRO Division of Energy Chemistry, NSW, Australia.1988 Aug 1;74:235-47. A comparative study of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in human sweat and blood.
  46. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption. el-Mougi M, Hendawi A, Koura H, Hegazi E, Fontaine O, Pierce NF. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74(5):471-7.
  47. Gisolfi, CV et al: Human intestinal water absorption: direct vs indirect measurements. Am J Physiol, 258:G216, 1990.
  48. Gisolfi, CV et al: Intestinal water absorption from select carbohydrate solutions in humans. J Appl Physiol, 7:2142, 1992.
  49. Gisolfi, CV et al: Effect of sodium concentration in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on intestinal absorption. Med Sci Sprots Exerc, 27:1414, 1995.
  50. Review of Medical Physiology, 16th ed. Lange. 1993. Ed. William F Ganong. pp 430.
  51. Review of Medical Physiology, 16th ed. Lange. 1993. Ed. William F Ganong. pp 434.
  52. Walberg-Rankin, J. Glycemic index and exercise metabolism. SSE 64-volume 10 (1997), Number 1. pp 5.
  53. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 73.
  54. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. pp 656.
  55. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. pp 94.
  56. Clarkson, PM et al: Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? Am J Clin Nut, Vol 72, No 2, 637S-646S, August 2000.
  57. Engell D et al. Environmental and sensory modulation of fluid intake in humans. In: Thirst: Physiological and Psychological Aspects. DJ Ramsay and DA Booth (eds.). Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp382-402.
  58. Hubbard RW et al. Voluntary dehydration and alliesthesia for water. J Appl Physiol. 57:868-875. 1994.
  59. Bergeron, MF. Sodium: The forgotten nutrient. SSE 78-volume 13 (2000). Number 3.
  60. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 817.
  61. Kamel KS et al. Treatment of hyponatremia: A quantitative analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 21:439. 1993.
  62. Fichman MP et al. Diuretic induced hyponatremia. Ann Intern Med. 75:853. 1971.
  63. Wenger CB. Human heat acclimatization. In: Human performance physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Pandolf KB et al (eds.) Benchmark Press, 1988, pp 153-157.
  64. Felig P et al. Fuel homeostasis in exercise. N Eng J Med, 293:1078, 1975.
  65. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 72.
  66. Coyle EF et al. Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. J Appl Physiol, 55:230, 1983.
  67. Krzentowski B et al. Availability of glucose given orally during exercise. J Appl Physiol, 56:315, 1984.
  68. Yaspelkis BB et al. Carbohydrate supplementation spares muscle glycogen during variable intensity exercise. J Appl Physiol, 75:1477, 1993.
  69. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 75.
  70. Burstein R et al. Glucose polymer ingestion-effect on fluid balance and glycemic state during a 4 day march. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 26:360, 1994.
  71. Millard-Stafford ML et al. Carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement improves distance running performance in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 24:934, 1992.
  72. Rehrer NJ et al. Gastric emptying, absorption, and carbohydrate oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol, 72:468, 1992.
  73. Vist GE et al. Gastric emptying of dilute glucose solutions in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 22:S70, 1992.
  74. Tsintzas et al. Influence of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks on marathon running performance. Euro J Appl Physiol, 70:154-160, 1995.
  75. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 816.
  76. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 514.
  77. The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 29th ed. Lippincott-Raven. 1998. Eds. Carey CF et al. pp 497.
  78. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 516.
  79. Speedy DB et al. Hyponatremia in ultradistance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31:809-815.
  80. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. Chapters 8 & 14.
  81. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. Chapter 23.
  82. Leijssen DP et al. Oxidation of exogenous [13C]galactose and [13C]glucose during exercise. J Appl Physiology, Sep;79(3):720-5.
  83. Shi, X., et al.: Effects of carbohydrate type and concentration and solution osmolality on water absorption. Med.Sci. Sports Exerc., 27:1607.1995.
  84. Klesges RC, Ward KD, Shelton ML, Applegate WB, Cantler ED, Palmieri GM, Harmon K, Davis J. Changes in bone mineral content in male athletes. Mechanisms of action and intervention effects. JAMA. 1996 Jul 17;276(3):226-30.
  85. Michael N Sawka and Scott J Montain. Fluid and electrolyte supplementation for exercise heat stress. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2, 564S-572s, August 2000.
  86. S. M. Shirreffs and R. J. Maughan. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content. J Appl Physiol 82: 336-341. 1997.
  87. Clarkson PM. Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes. J Sports Sci. 1991 Summer;9 Spec No:91-116.
  88. Rehrer NJ, Wagenmakers AJ, Beckers EJ, Halliday D, Leiper JB, Brouns F, Maughan RJ, Westerterp K, Saris WH. Gastric emptying, absorption, and carbohydrate oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992 Feb;72(2):468-75.
  89. Coyle EF. Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004 Jan;22(1):39-55.
  90. R.J. Maughan and Susan M. Shirreffs. Fluid and electrolyte loss and replacement in exercise, in Oxford Textbook of Sports Medicine, ed Harries et al. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford. 1998.
  91. Stauber JL, Florence TM. Sci Total Environ. CSIRO Division of Energy Chemistry, NSW, Australia.1988 Aug 1;74:235-47. A comparative study of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in human sweat and blood.
  92. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption. el-Mougi M, Hendawi A, Koura H, Hegazi E, Fontaine O, Pierce NF. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74(5):471-7.
  93. Gisolfi, CV et al: Human intestinal water absorption: direct vs indirect measurements. Am J Physiol, 258:G216, 1990.
  94. Gisolfi, CV et al: Intestinal water absorption from select carbohydrate solutions in humans. J Appl Physiol, 7:2142, 1992.
  95. Gisolfi, CV et al: Effect of sodium concentration in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on intestinal absorption. Med Sci Sprots Exerc, 27:1414, 1995.
  96. Review of Medical Physiology, 16th ed. Lange. 1993. Ed. William F Ganong. pp 430.
  97. Review of Medical Physiology, 16th ed. Lange. 1993. Ed. William F Ganong. pp 434.
  98. Walberg-Rankin, J. Glycemic index and exercise metabolism. SSE 64-volume 10 (1997), Number 1. pp 5.
  99. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 73.
  100. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. pp 656.
  101. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. pp 94.
  102. Clarkson, PM et al: Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? Am J Clin Nut, Vol 72, No 2, 637S-646S, August 2000.
  103. Engell D et al. Environmental and sensory modulation of fluid intake in humans. In: Thirst: Physiological and Psychological Aspects. DJ Ramsay and DA Booth (eds.). Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp382-402.
  104. Hubbard RW et al. Voluntary dehydration and alliesthesia for water. J Appl Physiol. 57:868-875. 1994.
  105. Bergeron, MF. Sodium: The forgotten nutrient. SSE 78-volume 13 (2000). Number 3.
  106. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 817.
  107. Kamel KS et al. Treatment of hyponatremia: A quantitative analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 21:439. 1993.
  108. Fichman MP et al. Diuretic induced hyponatremia. Ann Intern Med. 75:853. 1971.
  109. Wenger CB. Human heat acclimatization. In: Human performance physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Pandolf KB et al (eds.) Benchmark Press, 1988, pp 153-157.
  110. Felig P et al. Fuel homeostasis in exercise. N Eng J Med, 293:1078, 1975.
  111. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 72.
  112. Coyle EF et al. Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. J Appl Physiol, 55:230, 1983.
  113. Krzentowski B et al. Availability of glucose given orally during exercise. J Appl Physiol, 56:315, 1984.
  114. Yaspelkis BB et al. Carbohydrate supplementation spares muscle glycogen during variable intensity exercise. J Appl Physiol, 75:1477, 1993.
  115. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 75.
  116. Burstein R et al. Glucose polymer ingestion-effect on fluid balance and glycemic state during a 4 day march. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 26:360, 1994.
  117. Millard-Stafford ML et al. Carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement improves distance running performance in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 24:934, 1992.
  118. Rehrer NJ et al. Gastric emptying, absorption, and carbohydrate oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol, 72:468, 1992.
  119. Vist GE et al. Gastric emptying of dilute glucose solutions in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 22:S70, 1992.
  120. Tsintzas et al. Influence of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks on marathon running performance. Euro J Appl Physiol, 70:154-160, 1995.
  121. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 816.
  122. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 514.
  123. The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 29th ed. Lippincott-Raven. 1998. Eds. Carey CF et al. pp 497.
  124. Exercise Physiology-Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1996. Eds. McArdle, Katch, Katch. pp 516.
  125. Speedy DB et al. Hyponatremia in ultradistance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31:809-815.
  126. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. Chapters 8 & 14.
  127. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 4th ed. McGraw Hill. 1994. Ed. Burton David Rose. Chapter 23.
  128. Leijssen DP et al. Oxidation of exogenous [13C]galactose and [13C]glucose during exercise. J Appl Physiology, Sep;79(3):720-5.
  129. Shi, X., et al.: Effects of carbohydrate type and concentration and solution osmolality on water absorption. Med.Sci. Sports Exerc., 27:1607.1995.
  130. Klesges RC, Ward KD, Shelton ML, Applegate WB, Cantler ED, Palmieri GM, Harmon K, Davis J. Changes in bone mineral content in male athletes. Mechanisms of action and intervention effects. JAMA. 1996 Jul 17;276(3):226-30.
  131. Michael N Sawka and Scott J Montain. Fluid and electrolyte supplementation for exercise heat stress. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2, 564S-572s, August 2000.
  132. S. M. Shirreffs and R. J. Maughan. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content. J Appl Physiol 82: 336-341. 1997.
  133. Clarkson PM. Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes. J Sports Sci. 1991 Summer;9 Spec No:91-116.
  134. Rehrer NJ, Wagenmakers AJ, Beckers EJ, Halliday D, Leiper JB, Brouns F, Maughan RJ, Westerterp K, Saris WH. Gastric emptying, absorption, and carbohydrate oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992 Feb;72(2):468-75.
  135. Coyle EF. Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004 Jan;22(1):39-55.
  136. R.J. Maughan and Susan M. Shirreffs. Fluid and electrolyte loss and replacement in exercise, in Oxford Textbook of Sports Medicine, ed Harries et al. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford. 1998.
  137. Stauber JL, Florence TM. Sci Total Environ. CSIRO Division of Energy Chemistry, NSW, Australia.1988 Aug 1;74:235-47. A comparative study of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in human sweat and blood.
  138. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption. el-Mougi M, Hendawi A, Koura H, Hegazi E, Fontaine O, Pierce NF. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74(5):471-7.

 

 

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